bannerimage
Machine learning in agriculture

Machine learning is a trending technology nowadays and it can be used in modern agriculture industry. The uses of ML in agriculture helps to create more healthy seeds.

The principle that Arthur Samuel used earlier in machine learning experiments are used in today’s modern agriculture. Artificial machine learning in agriculture is one of the fastest growing areas. Artificial techniques are being used in the agricultural sector to increase the accuracy and to find solutions to the problems.

Agriculture plays a very pivotal role in the global economy of the country. Due to the increase in population, there is constant pressure on the agricultural system to improve the productivity of the crops and to grow more crops.

A) Machine Learning Methods

In machine learning agriculture, the methods are derived from the learning process. These methodologies need to learn through experiences to perform a particular task. The ML consists of data that are based on a set of examples. An individual example is defined as a set of attributes. These sets of characteristics are known as variables or features. A feature can be represented as binary or numeric or ordinal. The performance of the machine learning is being calculated from the performance metric.

The performance of the ML model improves as it gains experience over time. To determine the performance of ML models and the machine learning algorithms agricultures various mathematical and statistical models are used. Once the learning process is completed, then the model can then be used to make an assumption, to classify and to test data. This is achieved after gaining the experience of the training process.

agriculture with Machine Learning

Image Source:- mindbowser.com

Machine Learning Functions

It can be divided into two categories, namely supervised and unsupervised learning.

  • Supervised Learning
  • In this machine learning agriculture method, the input data is represented with examples to the corresponding outputs. The primary goal of this function is to create a rule that will map the inputs to the corresponding outputs. In some cases, the inputs might not be available that may lead to missing output. The trained model is then used in supervised learning to predict the disappeared production and then the data is being tested.

  • Unsupervised Learning
  • In this machine learning agriculture technique, there is no difference between the trained models and the test sets, while unlabeled data is being used. The goal of this method is to find the hidden patterns.

B) The Machine Learning (ML) Evolution in Different Areas

Machine learning is evolving along with big data technologies and other fast computing devices. They are growing to create new opportunities to understand the various data processes related to the environmental functions of agriculture. Machine learning can be defined as the scientific method that will allow machines the ability to learn without programming the devices. Machine learning is used in various scientific areas such as Bioinformatics, Biochemistry, Medicines, Meteorology, Economic Sciences, Robotics, Food Security and Climatology.

C) Uses of Machine Learning (ML) in Agriculture

Artificial Intelligence is being used in various sectors from home to office and now in the agriculture sectors. Machine learning in agriculture used to improve the productivity and quality of the crops in the agriculture sector.

  • Retailers
  • The seed retailers use this agriculture technology to churn the data to create better crops. While the pest control companies are using them to identify the various bacteria’s, bugs and vermins.

  • AI is used to boost the yield of crops
  • The AI technologies are used to determine which corn and which conditions will produce the best yield. It will also determine which weather condition will give the highest return.

  • AI helps to identify bug hunters
  • One of the companies named Rentokil is using AI to kill all the bugs and vermin. Other companies are making use of Android app which is developed by Accenture to find bugs. The app takes the pictures of the bug and runs the app called as PestID. When a bug is found app will provide an immediate solution which helps the technician to take further actions. It will also recommend the chemical to be used to kill the bugs.

D) Most Popular Applications of Machine Learning (ML) in Agriculture

Let us look at the various applications of machine learning in agriculture.

  • Agriculture Robot
  • Most of the companies are now programming and designing robots to handle the essential task related to agriculture. This includes harvesting crops and works faster than then human laborers. This is the best example of machine learning in agriculture.

    machine learning farming robot

    Image Source:- yourvippartner.com

  • Monitor crop and soil
  • Companies are now making use of technologies and deep learning algorithms. The data are then collected using the drones and other software to monitor the crops and also the soil. They also use the software to control the fertility of the soil.

    By making use of new technologies in agriculture, farmers can find effective ways to save their crop and also protect them from weeds. Companies are developing robots and automation tools to achieve them. Agricultural spray machines are designed, See and Spray robot that is being developed by Blue River Technology will monitor and spray accurate weeds on the plant like cotton. The precise amount of spraying can help to reduce herbicide expenditures.

    Plant breeders are looking out for a particular trait on a regular basis. They look up for the qualities that will help the crops to use more water efficiently, use the nutrients and also adapt to the climate changes or any diseases. If the plant needs to give the desired result the scientist need to find the right gene. Find the correct sequence of the gene is difficult.

E) Machine Learning (ML) Models Used in the Agriculture Industry

  • The agricultural farmers are now taking advantage of the machine learning models and their innovations. Using AI and machine learning is good for the food tech segments.
  • The Farmers Business Network that is being created for the farmers a social network will make use of the ML and the analytic tools to drive the results of data on pricing.
  • Robots are now managing the crops and also monitoring them.
  • Sensors are helping to collect the data related to crops.
  • According to research if AI and ML are being used in agriculture, then the agriculture sector will grow in the coming years.

F) Rising Opportunities of Machine Learning (ML) in Digital Agriculture

There is a rise in digital agriculture, which uses a secured approach to give maximum agricultural productivity by reducing the impact on the environment. The data that is generated in modern agriculture is based on various sensors that will help in better understanding of an environment like the crop, soil and the weather conditions and also about the agricultural machines. These data will help us to take quick and fast result-oriented decisions. To yield more, we need to apply machine learning to agriculture data.

G) Real-life ML Example

A Mexico based Startup Company Descartes Labs are combining the satellite images, ML, Cloud computing and sensors to a better understanding of industries related to agriculture and energy. The company uses new technology in agriculture to discover where crops are situated and how good and healthy the crops are.

The machine learning tools which were reserved for some institutions are now accessible to all small and capable members. A small startup is making use if AI and machine learning to bring change in the modern agriculture sector. They are trying to reshape the contemporary agriculture sector by making use of innovative technologies.

Moving Forward

If you are looking for progressive Machine Learning solutions, you have come to the precise place. We at Technostacks have the right capabilities to build clear-cut machine learning solutions that are supported by our in-depth acquaintance of industry applications, business-based services and the linked assortment of our diverse range of technologies.

Written By : Technostacks

best free android apps

Android’s leading strength is its app ecosystem. There are a digital ton of Android apps. Both technical and non-technical people download them billions of times. Some of them are cost-effective and some of them are not. More often than not, the best apps will cost you some bucks.

However, there are a lot of incredible options that don’t cost you. These services are typically supported by online advertising, business sponsorships or some other sort of financial planning.

Here’s your prospect to stock up on some beyond doubt exceptional stuff. These are the best free Android application available which are the finest of all time, so most of these should not astonish you.

Why Some of the Android apps have Turned as an Essential Part of our Lives

So here we are, ladies and gentlemen, with a unique list of top Free Android Apps that stand at the top of the pantheon. The apps that we have listed here are permeating with Android and there are a few apps that become the most important part of our lives. The ones that we have listed here we assume that you might already have them in your phone. Since Google play store has tons of Android apps their usefulness is limited to the habits of the people using it in their daily lives. Without any further delay let’s take a look at the best free android apps of 2019 and upcoming 2020.

We are pretty sure you all will be familiar to these as most of the apps provide similar kind of functionality but what makes these apps make a place in the most downloaded Android apps is what makes the real difference. So, let us take a look at them and explore these must have android apps with their diverse features and functionalities.

Note: We have made this list by making an allowance for user ratings, application features, functionalities, and popularity. You are free to pick any other option that suits your requirements for business or daily usage.

10 Best free Android Apps You Should Walk Around

1. Google Duo

Google Duo

Google Duo is one of the best voice and video calling apps for Android developed by Google. It has a simple interface which can be learned easily. The easy to log in and verify option can get you going instantly and you are all set to make free video calls across the world.

This is just like a standard phone call and of course, the other person needs to have a Google Duo account and you can talk to that person sitting in any part of the world absolutely free. The minimum requirement is a working WIFI or internet connection that will give you a flawless video calling experience.

It also has a “Knock-Knock” feature which gives you the caller before receiving the call. This is the most downloaded android apps.

2. Google News App

Google News App

When you think about the best free android apps, then you can’t ignore the Google News Application. It keeps you updated with the latest and the most relevant news in the news feed. The AI technique used for this app brings to you the news of your interest from across the world.

It is one of the must-have android apps in 2018. The special ‘for you’ tab gives you a personalized news window where you will get a full coverage of news that interests you. Isn’t it interesting?

3. Evernote

EverNote

Evernote app is one of the top notes taking application on the play store. It is a cross-platform application that allows you to take notes in various formats that includes text, photos, audio, video, sketches and more.

In today’s hectic world forgetting things has become a very normal thing hence here comes the smart note taking app at your rescue that syncs almost all your devices to keep up with your workflow. The quick widget feature on the home screen allows you to access the notes quickly.

4. AppLock

AppLock

AppLock is a free android app which is simple and the most important app everyone should have if you save sensitive data on your phone. This app allows you to lock your preferred app up tight with a password so that no one can miss using your phones.

There are two options in the app one which is absolutely free and another one which is available to premium users which come at a minimum cost and users can use the app without any ads. Keep your personal data in the phone secured by AppLock.

5. Gboard

Gboard

It is one of the best apps for android which is the top official keyboard app introduced by Google. This is easy to use and effective app which can be used without making the typing task complex. Just like any other normal keyboard features like gesture typing, light theming, voice typing, emoji search, GIF and more – Gboard application allows you to Google search without leaving the keyboard or any app that you are using at that moment.

The smart sync feature allows you to sync between the devices so that whatever you have saved remains with you. This is a must have android application for those who are mostly in the fields and have to sort out most of their work over the mobile phone. It is one of the best free android app ever.

6. Xender

Xender

Image Source:- hpssociety.info

Xender is one of the most useful android apps and a smart app that allows you to transfer files without any hassle right from the phone. This must have android app relieves you from carrying a flash drive or USB cable along to transfer the files as it does not require any connection with the PC to transmit or receive files.

Transferring files using Xender is a hassle-free and faster compared to Bluetooth and any other mode. This app is of a great help to those marketing professionals who have to keep sending important files back and forth via phones.

7. PicsArt

PicsArt

This is one of the most popular Android app and best Android app of all time which are amongst the most downloaded on the play store. It is one of the most loved photo editing apps for Android devices. The app is preloaded with numerous options for editing the pictures.

The app has allows you to share pictures right from the app to your social media accounts. One of the reasons why people prefer this app are its amazing features which include creating image collage, drawing on photo, frames, stickers, free cropping, mood changer tool. The app is absolutely free to a limited access with ads and then to access the premium features a minimal amount has to be paid.

8. Nova Launcher

Nova Launcher

Nova Launcher is one of the best launcher apps for android device for many years. The launcher is lightweight and easy to use with numerous customization options. A big bunch of launcher icons comes for free and from the play store to change the look and feel of using the mobile.

This app comes preloaded with app-drawer, scrollable dock, customizable icons, folders, notification badges with ample gestures for the ease of use. The app is absolutely free apart from the premium version that unlocks other features.

9. WhatsApp – Instant Messenger

WhatsApp

There are thousands of instant messaging app available in the market but the most favorite of all and the most downloaded messaging app on the Google play store is WhatsApp. This instant messaging app has become an integral part of everyone’s life nowadays and one cannot imagine a day without this.

The only basic requirement is internet and you get unlimited access to this instant messaging app. You can share pictures, videos, GIF’s, share contacts, share files and documents, create groups to share information, make voice and video calls and stay connected to the world. Not to forget WhatsApp is one of the secure Instant messaging App for both Android and IOS and one can use this app by using it even over a desktop.

10. LastPass

LastPass

How often do you forget your important login passwords? With everything being password protected for security reasons human minds have several passwords to remember and forgetting the password is very normal however retrieving them becomes a big task hence comes to your rescue LastPass an app that saves you from forgetting the important passwords of your various accounts, devices, and logins.

This app further helps you to lock down your password with all the personal information at a central location which is accessible only to you. The app is smart enough to autofill details in browsers and apps wherever required hence eliminates your task of going back and forth on the phone.

You have the facility to sync your password and data across all your devices hence making it easy for you to access it from anywhere. Moreover, this app works flawlessly across numerous platforms as compared and amongst the other latest apps for android phones.

Key Takeaways

This was the list of some of the best free android apps ever that can be utilized for day to day and other important usages. Now a day’s most of the Google apps are pre-loaded in the phone when you buy a new android phone.

However, the apps that are not there can be easily downloaded through the Google Play Store. The apps that we have listed are some of the musts and should have apps for all the smartphone users.

What do you feel about our compilation of the best ten free Android apps, we would like to hear your feedback in the comment section.

Written By : Technostacks

iOS unit testing

In General, we will test some parts separately before integrating into something if it’s working or not, otherwise, your full product will be wasted.

Of course not every developer wants to solve the bug after developed the whole App and don’t want to change business logic every time in app and compile the whole project and check results.

Stuck!!! THINK… what’s the solution to save our compile time, Then UNIT Test in the picture.

If you’re reading this iOS Unit Testing tutorial, you already know you should write tests for your code and UI, but you’re not sure how to test in Xcode.

Tests should run quickly, and the developer doesn’t mind by running them.

Let’s Start Testing.

Unit Testing in Xcode

Create new Project File -> New -> Project. Enable both “Include Unit Tests” & “Include UI Tests” when Create you will have Tests files added in your source code.

Unit Testing in Xcode

iOS Unit Testing

The template imports XCTest and defines a UITESTDemoTests subclass of XCTestCase, with setup(), tearDown() and example test methods. Also, it Inherit the XCTestCase class.

Related Article:- The Ultimate Guide For Scanning and Detecting 3D Objects With An iOS App

There are three ways to run the test class.

  • Product\Test or Command-U. This actually runs all test classes.
  • Click the arrow button in the test navigator
  • Click the diamond button in the gutter.

run the test class

The sample tests don’t do anything yet, so they’ll run really fast!

When all the tests succeed, the diamonds will turn green and show check marks. Click the gray diamond at the end of testPerformanceExample() to open the Performance Result:

UI Testing iOS

After the import statement there is “@testable import UITESTDemo”, this gives the unit tests access to the classes and methods in UITESTDemo.

For this blog, we just taking Google API and want to check if Google API working proper or not or any exceed Limit which says have to enter google key to access Lat long details from address.

Source:- maps.googleapis.com

Create API model which will make a network call and give response through closure block. API model code will look like below.

import UIKit

class APIModel: NSObject {

	override init() {

	}

	func jsonCallGET(classURL: String, completionHandler:@ escaping(_result:Any?,_error:Error?) -> Swift.Void)
	{
	    let urlString = classURL
		var request = URLRequest(url: URL(string: urlString)!)
		let session = URLSession.shared
		request.httpMethod = "GET"
		session.dataTask(with: request)
		{
			data, response, error in
			if error != nil
			{
				print(error!.localizedDescription)
				return
			}
			do
			{
			let jsonResult: NSDictionary? = try JSONSerialization.jsonObject(with: data!, options: JSONSerialization.ReadingOptions.mutableContainers) as? Any as! NSDictionary
			print("Synchronous\(String(describing: jsonResult))")

			if(jsonResult?.value(forKey: "status") as! String == "OVER_QUERY_LIMIT")
				{
					completionHandler(jsonResult?.object(forKey:"data"),error)
				}
				else
				{
					completionHandler(nil, error)
				}
			}
		catch
		{
		print(error.localizedDescription)
		}

		}.resume()
	}
}

Now at the top of the UITESTDemoTests class, add this property:

var APIModelObj : APIModel!
Create object APIModel in setup()
APIModelObj = APIModel()

This creates a SUT (System Under Test) object at the class level, so all the tests in this test class can access the SUT object’s properties and methods.

Before you forget, release your SUT object in tearDown()

APIModelObj = Nil

Now you’re ready to write your first test!

Replace you textExample() method with below.

func testcheckGETAPIcall() {
	// This is an example of a functional test case.
	let url = "http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json/address=CGroad&sensor=true"
	APIModelObj.jsonCallGET(classURL: url) {
		(result, error) in
		XCTAssertNil(result, "API is not giving any response, please check with your backend developer")
	}

}

Run your test: it should stop at XCTAssertNil with a Test Failure.

Your XCTESTCASE runs successfully but it didn’t wait for the response which will get from the API, Now how can I validate API is working properly or not.

Solution

To test that asynchronous operations behave as expected, you create one or more expectations within your test and then fulfill those expectations when the asynchronous operation completes successfully. Your test method waits until all expectations are fulfilled or a specified timeout expires.

Create an expectation for a background download task in the top of your UITESTDemoTests class.

let expectation = XCTestExpectation(description: “”Check API call”)

Add fulfill statement in your response closer after checking the Assertion in testcheckGETAPIcall(). Fulfill the expectation to indicate that the background task has finished successfully.

Also, need to add Wait statement which will be waiting for the array of expectations created until it will be fulfilled, also we can specify a timeout in that so no response on a longer timer will automatically terminate the XCTEST with Failure.

Your function will look like as below :

func testcheckGETAPIcall() {
	// This is an example of a functional test case.
	let url = "http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=CGroad&sensor=true"
	APIModelObj.jsonCallGET(classURL: url) { 
		(result, error) in

		XCTAssertNotNil(result, "API is not giving any response, please check with your backend developer")
		self.expectation.fulfill()
	}
	wait(for: [expectation], timeout: 60.0)
}

Run the test. If the API model will return nil it will stop on assertion statement.
That’s it. Stay tuned for UI Test with Xcode.

Written By : Mrudul Shah - CTO

aws serverless api

How to work with an AWS Serverless API

Just think if your backend had no infrastructure and no permanent server, it sounds a bit isolated, doesn’t it? As it turns out, Serverless backends could subsequently be the coming big thing for advancely implementing robust and scalable cloud architecture.
However, even at present, AWS API’s are utilized in the form of Serverless API.

What is Amazon API Gateway and how to build it?

Amazon API Gateway is an AWS service that empowers developers to build, publish, sustain, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at all-inclusive scales. You can create APIs that way in AWS and other sorts of web services.
Together with AWS Lambda, API Gateway acts like an app-facing part of the AWS Serverless infrastructure. For an application to call publicly accessible AWS services, you can utilize Lambda to communicate with the needed services and work on the Lambda functions by using API methods in the required API Gateway. AWS Lambda operates and runs the code on a highly accessible computing infrastructure.

How API Gateway assists Developers

API Gateway is built for web and mobile developers who want to offer secure as well as reliable access to backend APIs for access from mobile apps, web apps, and server apps that are created internally or by 3rd party ecosystem partners. A publicly reachable endpoint can offer the business logic that API Gateway proxies call, or it can be utterly run as a Lambda function.

There are two kinds of programmers who utilize API Gateway. The first one is the application developers and the others are API developers. An app developer creates a functioning app to call AWS services by enabling API methods in API Gateway. An API developer develops and deploys an API to empower the needed functionality in the accessible API Gateway. The API developer has to be an IAM user in the AWS account that has the ownership of the API.

Benefits of API Gateway

API Gateway assists you to deliver the best robust, secure, and scalable mobile and web app backends. API Gateway enables you to securely unite mobile and web apps to business logic hosted on AWS Lambda, APIs hosted on Amazon EC2, or other publicly workable web services hosted across AWS.

With API Gateway, you can build and work on APIs for backend services. For instance, you don’t require to create and sustain infrastructure to manage authorization and access control, traffic management, tracking, monitoring and analytics, version management, and software development kit (SDK) generation.

You can further add the DynamoDB table name as an environment variable and fill in the handler name to the specific function name.

Amazon API Gateway

AWS Serverless API

Creating an API Gateway with Lambda Integration

To create an API with Lambda integrations, you can utilize both Lambda proxy integration and the
Lambda custom integration. In a broad-spectrum, you must utilize the Lambda proxy integration for an agile and smooth API set up while offering flexible and commanding features.

Lambda proxy integration

With the Lambda proxy integration, the input to the integrated Lambda function can be articulated as any mix of request headers, path variables, query string parameters, and the body. With adding together, the Lambda function can utilize the API configuration settings to control its execution logic.

Lambda custom integration

While having Lambda custom integration, you must make sure that the input to the Lambda function is completed as the integration request payload. This means that an API developer needs to map input data provided as request parameters into the suitable integration request body. You may also require translating the client-supplied request body into a format accepted by the Lambda function.

Below you can view how you can use AWS Lambda to develop a service using Node.js.

AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda With Nodejs

Utilization of API Key’s

You can utilize API key to secure your services right from the required unauthorized access. You can configure it within the API Gateway as below.

Utilization of API Key

Utilize API Key

Stages and Deployment URL:

Once you are all set with our API Gateway and Lambda function, you can easily deploy to “Stage” with deployment URL that is obtainable through the App or Web as below.

Deploy To Stage With URL

The Serverless Web Request

Within a serverless infrastructure, every request matches up to its own server. After the server processes the function, it is straight away destroyed.

Steps for handling a web request:

  • The request comes in by an API Gateway
  • The API request is being properly mapped to a dictionary utilizing Velocity Template Language (VTL)
  • A server is built
  • The server then transforms the dictionary to a customary Python WSGI and feeds it into the required application
  • The application returns it, and it passes it by the API Gateway.
  • The server is finally destroyed

Conclusion: Moving Ahead with Serverless API Backends

The serverless transformations display an insightful paradigm transfer in our capacity to generate notably scalable web services. Rethinking how events can glimmer temporary server iterations can be an enormous cost effective solution for micro services and even large scale projects to be executed.

With all the small connected services being deployed in this mode, the serverless display also retells the rise of enterprises that rely on diverse services to succeed; by applying for the web API’s position as an essential cog in current and upcoming web communication.

Written By : Hussain - Project Manager

Google+ Consumer Version Is Shutting Down

Google announced that it removes the consumer version of Google+ for the next 10 months. Google said that currently, 90 percent of Google+ users spend only average 5 seconds over this social networking platform which is very low user engagement.

This March, as Facebook came under worldwide scrutiny for the harvesting of personal data for Cambridge Analytica, Google itself discovered a bug in the API for Google+ had been permitting 3rd party application developers to the way in the data not just of users who had approved permission, but even of their friends.

If that sounds common, it’s a similar situation that got Mark Zuckerberg drawn in front of the US Congress. The equivalent was not lost on Google, and the company decided not to disclose the data leak, the Wall Street Journal publicized on Monday, in order to keep away from the public relations pain and probable regulatory enforcement.

Disclosure will likely consequence “in us coming into the limelight alongside or even in its place of Facebook despite was under the spotlight throughout the Cambridge Analytica issues”, Google policy and legal officials wrote in a memo accesses by the Journal. It “almost guarantees Sundar will testify facing Congress”, the memo said, addressing to the company’s CEO, Sundar Pichai. The disclosure would even invite “direct regulatory interest”.

Soon after the story was published, Google declared that it will shut down direct consumer access to Google+ and work on privacy protections for 3rd party applications.

Google unveiled the data leak with which it is said that it affected up to 500,000 accounts. Up to 438 diverse 3rd party applications may have had access to private data because of the bug, but it appears that have no way of perceptive whether they did as Google only conserves logs of API use for two weeks.

No evidence that any developer was conscious of this bug is found till date is said by Google. There is no federal law that compels Google to divulge data leaks however there are laws at a state level. In California, where Google has its headquarters are only needed to disclose a data leak if it incorporates both an individual’s name as well as their Social Security number, ID card or driver’s license number, license plate, medical data or health insurance information.

Google even announced to give users more control on the amount of data they share with 3rd party application developers. Google will further bound 3rd parties’ access to SMS, email, contacts and phone logs.

The conclusion is that the leak was added evidence that the large technology platforms require more regulatory oversight.

Written By : Technostacks

About Us

Technostacks, reputed IT Company in India, has successfully carved its niche within a few years of its inception….

LET'S DISCUSS